Low Iron, high-purity technical grade spodumene.

The PAK deposit shares the differentiating characteristic of being low-iron spodumene to the world-class Greebushes’ deposit in southwestern Australia. Spodumene is the most widely used lithium mineral because of its high lithium content and occurrence.

The deposit is outcropped at the earth's surface and is amenable to low-cost open pit mining. It is an LCT (lithium- cesium- tantalum) type pegmatite (coarsely crystalline granite or other igneous rock with crystals several centimeters to several meters in length). The deposit is a large intrusion, with internal zonation (defined mineralogical assemblages) and high concentration (PAK maintains the highest known grades in North America). These types of pegmatites have been the principal source of hard rock lithium, tantalum, rubidium and cesium ores mined in the world but there are few commercially-viable deposits.

Approved by Global Glass Producer.

In late summer 2017 Frontier's spodumene was approved as it satisfied product criteria by a leading global consumer of high purity lithium concentrates by completion of an industrial trial as part of a 280 tonne bulk sample of the PAK lithium deposit.

As the glass and ceramics industry is the second largest market segment for lithium demand, qualifying our company and material from the deposit with a global lithium user is a very important part of our strategy for successful development. These results, in addition to the completion of the Pre-Feasibility Study currently being conducted on the project to assess the economic viability and technical feasibility of producing lithium concentrates, will provide the support to advance off-take negotiations to supply lithium products in the future.

End-users in this lithium market segment require very low impurities (mainly iron levels) in order to maintain chemical stability, consistency, and avoid discoloration of glass, glazes, and frits.

Understanding Lithium.

Lithium (chemical symbol: Li) is the lightest of all metals. It does not occur as a pure element in nature but can occur in economic concentrations in salts from surface and subsurface brines (most of the world's supply), and in granitic pegmatites in the lithium minerals (from most relevent to least) spodumene, petalite, lepidolite, and amblygonite. Spodumene is the most widely used lithium mineral because of its high lithium content and occurrence.

Lithium and its chemical compounds exhibit a broad range of beneficial properties including:

As a result, lithium is used in numerous applications that can be defined in to two categories: technical applications and chemical applications.

Technical Applications.

Lithium products (Technical-Grade Concentrates) are used directly in technical applications, particularly where lithium products with low iron concentration are necessary to meet the highly specialized requirements of end users. Frontier Lithium's deposit will enable the production of low iron lithium products suitable for technical applications. Currently, the second largest global market for lithium is for use in glass and ceramics.

  • Glass Applications

    Glasses such as container glass, flat glass, pharmaceutical glass, specialty glass and fiberglass may be designed for durability or corrosion resistance or for use at high temperatures where thermal shock resistance is important. The addition of lithium increases the glass melt rate, lowers the viscosity and the melt temperature providing higher output, energy savings and moulding benefits.

    Glass Applications
  • Ceramic Applications

    For ceramic bodies such as frits, glazes and heat proof ceramic cookware, lithium lowers firing temperatures and thermal expansion and increases its strength. The addition of lithium to glazes improves viscosity for coating, as well as improving the glaze’s colour, strength and lustre.

    Ceramic Applications
  • Specialty Applications

    Lithium’s extremely high coefficient of thermal expansion makes products such as induction cooktops and cookware resistant to thermal shock and imparts mechanical strength.

    Specialty Applications
  • Steel Casting Applications

    The addition of lithium to continuous casting mould fluxes assists in providing thermal insulation and lubricates the surface of the steel in the continuous casting process.

    Steel Casting Applications
  • Iron Casting Applications

    In the production of iron castings, such as engine blocks, lithium reduces the effect of veining, thereby reducing the number of defective casts.

    Iron Casting Applications

Chemical Applications.

Lithium can be processed to form a variety of chemicals, including lithium carbonate, lithium hydroxide, bromide, lithium chloride and butyl lithium. The fastest growing and now largest market for lithium globally is for use in batteries.

Lithium Conversion Factors.

The lithium content of minerals and compounds is referred to in 1 of 3 units depending on the source quoted and the end use referred to, including:

  • Lithium (Li) content

  • Lithium oxide (lithia, Li2O) content

  • Lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) content or lithium

As a result, lithium is used in numerous applications that can be defined in to two categories: technical applications and chemical applications.

Conversion Factors

  • To Convert From:
  • Lithium Li (100% Li)
  • Lithium Oxide Li2O (Lithia)
  • Lithium Carbonate Li2CO3 (40.4% Li2O)
  • Lithium Hydroxide LiOH (62.4% Li2O)
  • Spodumene LiAISi2O6 (8.03% Li2O)
  • Petalite LiAISi4O10 (4.88% Li2O)
  • to Li x
  • 1.00
  • 0.46
  • 0.19
  • 0.29
  • 0.037
  • 0.023
  • to Li20 x
  • 2.153
  • 1.00
  • 0.404
  • 0.624
  • 0.08
  • 0.05
  • to Li2C03 x
  • 5.32
  • 2.47
  • 1.00
  • 1.543
  • 0.20
  • 0.12

Li Conversion Factors

  • To Convert From:
  • Lithium Li (100% Li)
  • Lithium Oxide Li2O (Lithia)
  • Lithium Carbonate Li2CO3 (40.4% Li2O)
  • Lithium Hydroxide LiOH (62.4% Li2O)
  • Spodumene LiAISi2O6 (8.03% Li2O)
  • Petalite LiAISi4O10 (4.88% Li2O)
  • to Li x
  • 1.00
  • 0.46
  • 0.19
  • 0.29
  • 0.037
  • 0.023

Li20 Conversion Factors

  • To Convert From:
  • Lithium Li (100% Li)
  • Lithium Oxide Li2O (Lithia)
  • Lithium Carbonate Li2CO3 (40.4% Li2O)
  • Lithium Hydroxide LiOH (62.4% Li2O)
  • Spodumene LiAISi2O6 (8.03% Li2O)
  • Petalite LiAISi4O10 (4.88% Li2O)
  • to Li20 x
  • 2.153
  • 1.00
  • 0.404
  • 0.624
  • 0.08
  • 0.05

Li2C03 Conversion Factors

  • To Convert From:
  • Lithium Li (100% Li)
  • Lithium Oxide Li2O (Lithia)
  • Lithium Carbonate Li2CO3 (40.4% Li2O)
  • Lithium Hydroxide LiOH (62.4% Li2O)
  • Spodumene LiAISi2O6 (8.03% Li2O)
  • Petalite LiAISi4O10 (4.88% Li2O)
  • to Li2C03 x
  • 5.32
  • 2.47
  • 1.00
  • 1.543
  • 0.20
  • 0.12

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A Canadian Lithium Company developing a World-Class Deposit.